Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Azadirachta indica
M-type_MADS Family
Species TF ID Description
Neem_10270_a_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_1057_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_10694_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_10694_f_2M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_11290_f_2M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_11846_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_13007_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_13150_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_1344_f_12M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_14065_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_14337_f_2M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_1516_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_15628_f_3M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_1741_f_2M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_17588_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_17850_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_1792_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_18343_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_1935_f_2M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_20801_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_21044_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_2190_a_2M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_22869_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_26765_a_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_30223_a_2M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_3061_f_5M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_31430_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_3161_f_3M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_33196_f_2M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_35207_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_35397_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_36518_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_371_f_4M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_37267_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_3745_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_40357_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_40966_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_41513_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_42214_a_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_42500_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_426_f_4M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_450_f_2M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_4533_f_3M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_4779_f_4M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_5945_f_3M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_6714_f_6M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_6755_f_6M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_867_f_4M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_9433_f_1M-type_MADS family protein
Neem_9901_f_2M-type_MADS family protein
M-type_MADS (M-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513